—This paper develops a novel optimization method
namely hybrid firefly algorithm with harmony search technique
(IFA–HS), to obtain the optimal cost of the reinforced concrete
retaining walls satisfying the stability criteria. The hybrid
IFA–HS is utilized to find the economical design adhering to
provisions of ACI 318-05. Also Coulomb lateral earth pressure
theory is used to derive the lateral total thrust on the wall. Some
design examples are tested using the new method. The results
carried out on these examples confirm the validity of the
proposed algorithm. The IFA–HS method can be considered as
an improvement of the recently developed firefly algorithm.
The improvements include the utilizing of a memory that
contains some information extracted online during the search,
adding of pitch adjustment operation in harmony search
serving as mutation operator during the process of the firefly
updating, and modifying the movement phase of firefly
algorithm. The detailed implementation procedure for this
improved meta–heuristic method is also described.
—Concrete retaining wall, firefly algorithm,
R. Sheikholeslami is with Departmant of Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic),
Tehran, Iran (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
B. G. Khalili is with Departmant of Civil Engineering, University of
Tehran, Iran (e-mail: email@example.com).
C. S. M. Zahrai is with Engineering and Management of civil
Infrastructures, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
University of Tehran, Iran (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Cite: R. Sheikholeslami, B. Gholipour Khalili, and S. M. Zahrai, "Optimum Cost Design of Reinforced Concrete Retaining
Walls Using Hybrid Firefly Algorithm," International Journal of Engineering and Technology vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 465-470, 2014.